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 The Uses of Sarum and York

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khafara

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PostSubject: The Uses of Sarum and York   Fri Mar 21, 2014 6:27 am

One of the ironies of the Anglican church is that it preserves a centuries-old form of Catholic worship, or "Use", known as "the Use of Sarum". The Use of Sarum was just one of many Uses practiced by churches in England, but since it was commonly used in the South (especially in the Home Counties) and was favored by Henry VIII, it was the one adopted by the fledgling Anglican Church in the aftermath of the Dissolution.

The Use that was most popular in the North turned out to be the Use of York. Copious documentation of it exists, enough to enable modern-day masses and other ceremonies to be performed according to its Use.

More can be found on this by typing "use of york" into any internet search engine.
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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Fri Mar 21, 2014 3:44 pm

I'd never heard of this...will have to find out more about it, as I'm going through the RCIA classes to learn more about Catholicism, as I realized recently that if I don't understand the church (or chivalry, either) as it was in medieval times, I'll never "get" what Richard's spiritual life was like.

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khafara

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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Thu Mar 27, 2014 7:56 pm

Here's the York Missal for Communion:

http://anglicanhistory.org/liturgy/yorkmissal.pdf

Again, the irony here is that the Anglicans have done signal work in preserving the Pre-Tridentine Masses.
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khafara

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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Thu Mar 27, 2014 8:36 pm

William Maskell's early Victorian collection of the various Medieval English Uses:

https://archive.org/details/ancientliturgyc00churgoog
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Constantia

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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Sat Mar 29, 2014 3:42 pm

Khafara, do you know where we can find a copy of the medieval English wedding ceremony (assuming a wedding at the church door and not a do-it-yourself marriage with no witnesses needed)? Would the Anglican version in Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer be a fair translation?
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khafara

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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Sat Mar 29, 2014 8:42 pm

I've been trying to find a full English translation of what in Latin is called "Ordo ad facienda sponsalia" (the marriage office), but in my brief traversal haven't encountered any. (For instance, this list of the various rites per the various Uses doesn't have a marriage ceremony for the Use of York, at least none that I could find; those of you who know Latin could likely discover it.)

I do know that the service apparently ends thus: "Here let the priest ask the woman's dowry and if land be given her for her dowry then let her fall at the feet of her husband."




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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Sun Mar 30, 2014 5:29 pm

Maybe this paper will help? Medieval and Renaissance Marriage: Theory and Customs. It quotes directly from contemporary marriage ceremonies, but it also has a lot of sources listed at the end, so if what you're looking for isn't in the paper, maybe one of the sources will be able to help?

This paper quotes bits from "The fifteenth-century York Manual" ceremony that's contained in Stevenson, Kenneth W. Nuptial Blessing: a Study of Christian Marriage Rites. New York: Oxford UP, 1983:

The fifteenth-century York Manual gives different vows for man and woman. The man says:

       I take the N. to my wedded wyf, to have and to holde, fro this day forwarde, for bettere for wors, for richere for pourer [one manuscript adds ‘for fayrere for fowlere’], in sycknesse and in hele, tyl dethe us depart, if holy chyrche it woll ordeyne, and therto y plight the my trouthe.

And the woman promises:

       I take the N to my wedded housbonde, to have and to holde, fro this day forwarde, for better for wors, for richer for pourer, in syckness and in hele, to be bonere and boxsom* , in bedde and atte bord, tyll dethe us departe, if holy chyrche it wol ordeyne, and therto I plight the my trouthe (qtd. in Stevenson 79).

(* meek and obedient -- Cf. Stevenson 70.)


There's a lot more to this paper, too. There's also this:

"Betrothal was an important medieval tradition. The prospective bride and groom appeared in front of a priest and made solemn promises. They then exchanged rings and kisses, then waited for roughly 40 days, when the wedding ceremony then took place. Grooms were required to pay a
"deposit" at the betrothal, and should he try to back out of an agreement, he would have to pay a penalty. This was equal to four times the betrothal price."

The above is from here, so I don't know how reliable it is.) So you have solemn promises before the wedding, and then another ceremony at the church door?

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khafara

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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Sun Mar 30, 2014 7:29 pm

Thank you! I knew I'd seen that before, but couldn't find it again. I did searches on the text and found an online copy of the Annotated Book of Common Prayer (C. of E.) dated 1884, which includes a side-by-side comparison of the Sarum (Salisbury), York and Hereford Use versions of the marriage ceremony
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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Sun Mar 30, 2014 7:32 pm

Glad to help. Is this the ceremony used before the Reformation as well?

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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Sun Mar 30, 2014 7:38 pm

Yes. Before Henry VIII mandated the adoption nationwide of the Use of Sarum for his infant Church of England, there were several Uses throughout England and Wales: The Use of York was the most popular in the north, the Use of Hereford was popular in the west near the Welsh border, the Use of Bangor was dominant in Wales, et cetera.
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Constantia

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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Mon Mar 31, 2014 10:22 am

Wednesday wrote:
Maybe this paper will help? Medieval and Renaissance Marriage: Theory and Customs. It quotes directly from contemporary marriage ceremonies, but it also has a lot of sources listed at the end, so if what you're looking for isn't in the paper, maybe one of the sources will be able to help?

This paper quotes bits from "The fifteenth-century York Manual" ceremony that's contained in Stevenson, Kenneth W. Nuptial Blessing: a Study of Christian Marriage Rites. New York: Oxford UP, 1983:

The fifteenth-century York Manual gives different vows for man and woman. The man says:

       I take the N. to my wedded wyf, to have and to holde, fro this day forwarde, for bettere for wors, for richere for pourer [one manuscript adds ‘for fayrere for fowlere’], in sycknesse and in hele, tyl dethe us depart, if holy chyrche it woll ordeyne, and therto y plight the my trouthe.

And the woman promises:

       I take the N to my wedded housbonde, to have and to holde, fro this day forwarde, for better for wors, for richer for pourer, in syckness and in hele, to be bonere and boxsom* , in bedde and atte bord, tyll dethe us departe, if holy chyrche it wol ordeyne, and therto I plight the my trouthe (qtd. in Stevenson 79).

(* meek and obedient -- Cf. Stevenson 70.)

Thanks for this link, which I've bookmarked.

So, assuming that essentially the same rites were used in London and in York, this is approximately what Richard and Anne would have said to each other? It sounds in many ways like the traditional wedding vows in the Episcopal (and, presumably, the Anglican) Book of Common Prayer--except, of course, that the modern version says nothing about bed. This part, of course, is actually the betrothal ("thereto I plight thee my troth," to modernize the spelling), which has now been incorporated into the wedding ceremony but, if I'm not mistaken, used to be separate (the announcing of the banns or intent to marry).

I'm mainly interested in the line "forsaking [or "leaving"] all others, cleave only unto her"--in other words, the part of the wedding vows that requires a man to be faithful to his wife. I'm guessing that Edward's secret marriage to Elizabeth Woodville (not to mention his earlier marriage to Eleanor Talbot Butler, which I do believe happened) included no such vows (which could explain why he thought he could get away with adultery--or bigamy), but I suspect that Richard's marriage to Anne Neville did--and that he would honor that sacred vow. (I know that some people think his illegitimate children may have been conceived after his marriage, but I'm not one of them.)

I'll try to check out the author's sources, particularly Mark Searle and Kenneth W. Stevenson, Documents of the Marriage Liturgy and Kenneth W. Stevenson, Nuptial Blessing: a Study of Christian Marriage Rites. With luck, one or both will be available through Google Books, but probably only in snippet view since they're still in copyright.
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Constantia

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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Mon Mar 31, 2014 10:23 am

Yikes. It appears that our quote function is acting up. Those quotes should not have appeared in BB code. Admins, can you do anything to fix the problem?
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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Mon Mar 31, 2014 10:57 am

Constantia wrote:
Yikes. It appears that our quote function is acting up. Those quotes should not have appeared in BB code. Admins, can you do anything to fix the problem?

The quote function is fine.

When you add any code here, the code commands appear in brackets. (I can't include a sample of this, else the system translates it into code.) The code has an opening command and a closing command, like the ancient word processor WordStar if anyone remembers that.

In the post in question, it had the opening command but was lacking the closing command. To close a command, you add a forward slash (/) before adding the command to be closed. I edited the post in question to include the closing command, so now it works.

After you've added code to your post, it's always a good idea to Preview the post before hitting Send to ensure it appears correctly. Alternately, I think everyone can edit their posts by clicking on "Edit" in the top right corner next to "Quote". If that's not the case, let me know and I'll check the settings on the board.

I know working in code can be maddening. Be patient, you'll get it if you play around with it.

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Constantia

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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Mon Mar 31, 2014 11:54 am

My fault. I figured out what I was doing wrong. Thanks for fixing this one. I do understand how BB code works, but I haven't used it for something like six years. As you say, it takes time to get used to.

Here's a link to some information from the Catholic Encyclopedia on the publication of banns (primarily to determine whether there were impediments to the marriage) before the marriage ceremony itself.
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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Mon Mar 31, 2014 1:50 pm

I wrote earlier:
Quote :
I'm mainly interested in the line "forsaking [or "leaving"] all others, cleave only unto her"--in other words, the part of the wedding vows that requires a man to be faithful to his wife. I'm guessing that Edward's secret marriage to Elizabeth Woodville (not to mention his earlier marriage to Eleanor Talbot Butler, which I do believe happened) included no such vows (which could explain why he thought he could get away with adultery--or bigamy), but I suspect that Richard's marriage to Anne Neville did--and that he would honor that sacred vow. (I know that some people think his illegitimate children may have been conceived after his marriage, but I'm not one of them.)

Khafara wrote:
Quote :
I did searches on the text and found an online copy of the Annotated Book of Common Prayer (C. of E.) dated 1884, which includes a side-by-side comparison of the Sarum (Salisbury), York and Hereford Use versions of the marriage ceremony

Thanks, Khafara. Those side-by-side texts showed me that this promise to "cleave only unto her" (as it's sometimes rendered) is very ancient and occurs first in the Latin version: "Vis habere hanc mulierem in sponsam, et eam diligere: honorare: et custodire sanam et infirmam, sicut sponsus debet sponsam: et omnes alias propter eam dimittere, et illi soli adhærere quamdiu vita uturiusque vestrum duraverit?"

The Sarum version (Harleian MS 873), which must be more or less what the priest would have asked Richard, is a more or less literal translation of the Latin passage in the idiom of the fifteenth century: "Wylt thou have thys woman to thy wedded wyf and her loue [love] honour holde and kepe heyl and seke as a husband owyth to kepe hys wyf and all other for her to lete and holde the only to her as long as your eyther lyf lasteth? (Wilt thou have this woman to thy wedded wife and love, honor, hold, and keep [her] whole and sick as a husband oweth to keep his wife and all others for her to let [forsake] and hold thee only to her as long as your either life lasteth?)"

The sense is almost identical to the familiar and much more beautiful Book of Common Prayer version, for which I suppose we owe Cranmer a debt: "Wilt thou have this woman to thy wedded wife, to live together after God’s ordinance in the holy estate of matrimony? Wilt thou love her, comfort her, honour and keep her in sickness and in health; and forsaking all others, keep thee only unto her, so long as ye both shall live?"

My point is that Richard would, in this wedding service, have made a sacred and solemn vow to be faithful to Anne. And knowing Richard, who as far as we know broke only one sacred oath (that of loyalty to Edward V)--and that for very good reason--would almost certainly have kept that vow. (Adultery was a much graver sin than premarital fornication.)





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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Fri Apr 11, 2014 1:45 pm

According to the Oxford, buxom originally meant compliant or obliging, which isn't quite the same as obedient. I would guess that "bonere and boxsom" means "kind and willing".
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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Fri Apr 11, 2014 4:12 pm

whitehound wrote:
According to the Oxford, buxom originally meant compliant or obliging, which isn't quite the same as obedient. I would guess that "bonere and boxsom" means "kind and willing".

That's my take on it. Both husbands and wives were expected to be, in the parlance encouraged by American sex advice columnist Dan Savage, "good, giving, and game" or "ggg".
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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Fri Apr 11, 2014 4:38 pm

And not to claim to have a headache unless they really *did* have a headache!
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PostSubject: Re: The Uses of Sarum and York   Fri Apr 11, 2014 7:00 pm

I suppose "bonere" is a variant on "bon", btw, meaning good, so it probably translates most accurately as "benign".
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